Beat plastic Pollution.If you can not ReUse it, ReFuse it.

World Environment Day (WED),June 05, 2018

A worker sorts bottles to throw them in a plastic bottle chipper at a recycling workshop in Islamabad

 

  1. WED is stablished by UN in 1972. The same year UN Environment Programme (UNEP) was also established. In 1974 the first WED was held with the theme “Only One Earth”. From 1987 different countries host the event. This year(2018) India hosts the day with the theme Beat the plastic pollution.

 

  1. Watch if possible both videos: Plastic planet(6.26 minutes video) : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=73sGgmZoMBQ.

 

Theme of Environment day 2018 (1.4 minutes):      http://www.worldenvironmentday.global.

 

  1. History of plastic:In 1933, Eric Fawcett and Reginald Gibson were workingon polymers in Imperial Chemical Industries(ICI)near Northwich(UK). The experiment went wrong and an unintended white-waxy residue was produced. This is what is called plastic that pollutes today. Plastic was used in World War II by the British to insulate the radar cables. Use of plastic gave an edge over the Germany in the war. So it was kept a secret for long time. In 1960  GustafThulinSten of Sweden designed the plastic bag. From 1979 plastic grocery bags were introduced in America. In 1982,  Safeway and Kroger( supermarket chains) in the United States, switched to plastic bags. By the end of 1985, 75% of supermarkets were offering plastic bags to their customers.

 

  1. Plastic Today?: The cost of plastic is low; it is  convenient  and  it is light. So it has monopolised the packaging arena. Every minute one million plastic bags are consumed world wide. Every year the world uses 500 billion plastic bags. 50% of the plastic we use are single-use or disposable.only 2% of the plastics are recycled. The rest reach the land fill and water bodies.

Each year 13 million tonnes of plastic waste reach the oceans. It is seen at the deepest    ocean( 10,000 meters) polluting the fauna of the deep waters. In 1997 Charles Moore( Sailor and researcher) discovered a   great garbage patch in pacific ocean. The   problem is so serious that scientists say that             by 2050 the weight of plastic in our   oceans will outweigh fish.Plastic in ocean. Watch   this  video on plastic in sea:             https://www.thealternativedaily.com/seafood-contains-      microplastic/.

 

Plastic  is found in the mount Everest. Edmund Hillary and TenzingNorgway reached     the Everest on May 30, 1953. To further the journey they had to leave out whatever    was not absolutely necessary. That was the beginning of rubbish on the mountain. Then            every mountain climbers has added to it. It is estimated that there are 50 tonnes of            garbage littering the Everest.

 

  1. Plastic and human health: For plastic bags, bottles and packaging materials, PET(Polyethylene terephthalate),  HDPE(High-density polyethylene) and  PP5(Polypropylene) are used. PET is meant for a single use only and it has to be used  within a month. When plastic bottles etc., are reused,  the chemicals in the bottle like  phthalates and bisphenolmixes into the water. . The plastic toxins can       disrupt the endocrine system, hormone balance,      cause fatigue and weight gain. When the plastic is burned there is increased risk of heart diseases, respiratory problems, skin rashes, allergies and nervous problems.

Microbeads or microplastics  (little bits of plastic in the size of 5mm) are mixed in           toothpaste, shampoos, scrubs, cleaners etc., as abrasive to remove the deadcells from             the body. Microplasticseventually end up in ocean/water bodies. Fish and        mussels eat      them. The birds feed on them and feed  the             chicks with     plastic . Through drinking     water, fish and birds meat microplastic enter the human food chain. It is estimated that             by the end of this century,     4000 micro plastic will enter, every human body,    in a      year .

  1. Plastic and planet health: The plastic is non degradable and it can continue to pollute the earth at least for 1000 years. The plastic bags thrown on land makes the soil less fertile. The chemical foul gases released by plastic bags make the soil toxic.Birds die because of their legs entangled in plastic bags; the sea animals, especially the endangered species like turtle and whales,   die entangledin plastic fishing nets that are abandoned in the sea.

 

  1. Countries have banned Plastic:So far the research, for new forms of plastic that are less harmful to the environment, has failed. So the solution to end the plastic menace is in the hand of the consumer. 40 countries have taken effort to regulate, reduce and ban the single/disposable use of plastics.

Sikkim  a Himalayan state  of India, has bannedsince 1998.            Bangladesh     has       banned the thin plastic  in 2002. South Africa introduced the bag     levy in 2004.   Eritrea banned plastic bags in 2005.Tanzaniabanned the plastic bags in      2006.   Botswana introduced a levy on Plastic Bags in 2007. Uganda introduced a ban        on        plastic bags  in 2007. Rwanda banned plastic bags in 2008. Mauritania banned the             plastic bags in 2013.Cameroonbanned disposable plastic bags in 2014.Morocco   effected banning the use of plastic bags in 2016.Tunisiahas banned plastic bag in 2017.            Kenya has banned single use plastic in 2017. Indonesia, Israel, Malaysia, Myanmar          and Taiwan have banned or imposed a levy, on plastic.Denmark, France, Germany,      Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Romania, Switzerland and the United Kingdome –Wales,             Northern Ireland, Scotland and England have made attempts to phase out plastic bags    in         one way or another.Queen of England is supporting the efforts to reduce the single use        plastics in royal palace. UK is planning to ban microbeads. Scottish            parliament had            announced removing plastic drinking straws from its cafes, bar    and canteen. The USA does not have a national plastic bag fee or ban but             states such      as California and            territories such as American Samoa and Puerto Rico           have banned disposable bags.

 

European Union has declared on January 16,2018 that all plastic packaging on the EU            market will be recyclable by 2030 and  the consumption of single-use plastics and   microplasticswill be reduced .

 

  1. Possible reduction of plastic pollution: The market operates according to the principle of demand and supply. We have to refuse what can not be reused or upcycled. We have to purchase the products( eggs, toilet paper, fruits, vegetables, Milk, drinksetc) that are packaged in non plastic materials. When the demand plastic packaging falls, the production of plastic will come down. So consider to give up the use of disposable plastics goods like:

 

            Disposable plasticwater bottle, bags,razor, plate, spoon, cups, knife, spoon, fork, shampoo & soap in plastic bottles, plastic straws, plastic pens(use pencil or refillable   fountain pen) plastic yoghurt containers, coffee capsules (like lavazza), Nutella/ honey/           jam/biscuits in plastic sachets, disposalle syringe, goods made of thermocoletc.

 

Doing Upcycling of plastic goods is a way to beat the plastic pollution. It is modifying   or crafting an existing item that is going to be thrown away,  it into         a new,             functional item. Upcycling is             different than recycling for  which the use of          water or energy are needed. Upcycling         requires a little creativity            and      craftiness withimagination.

 

  1. What can we do in WED 2018?:

 

  1. Do a personal plastic audit to realize the ways and volumes of the use plastic consumption.
  2. Sort out by type the house hold/institutional waste,and facilitate the recycling and upcycling.
  3. Generate a discussion incommunity/school/parish on how the plastic pollution can be
  4. Clean up plastic litter in the surrounding.
  5. Petition the government to legislate to ban single use plastic.

 

  1. Make a Difference: In this WED we can make a difference. We can make it as Afroz Shah of India is doing to clean the ocean: Shah, a young lawyer from Mumbai, and his volunteers, have removed around 13 million kg of waste since 2015 in what the UN has called “the world’s largest beach cleanup project”. Here is the link to watch the beach clean up:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z8HxIfz07rk.

 

            We shall decide to beat plastic Pollution. If you can not ReUse it, ReFuse it.

 

(S. Vincent Anesthasiar,CMF) , Secretariat for JPIC , MissionariClaretiani
Curia Generalizia, Via SacroCuore di Maria, 5, 00197 Roma, Italia.

 

 

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welcoming, protecting, promoting and integrating migrants and refugees

The Church has celebrated the World Day of Migrants and Refugees each year since 1914. This is an occasion for the Church and people of faith to reflect upon the role migration has played in our tradition, express concern for migrants, refugees, and people on the move, and build awareness about the challenges and opportunities migration presents.

 

For 2018, Pope Francis has written about welcomingprotectingpromoting and integrating migrants and refugees.

 

The Pope’s 3-minute video, with subtitles in each language, explains our basic response to migrants, asylum seekers, refugees and the displaced.

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THE GREAT GREEN WALL

THE GREAT GREEN WALL
The Great Green Wall is an African-led project with an epic ambition: to grow an 8,000km natural wonder of the world across the entire width of Africa. Its goal is to provide food, jobs and a future for the millions of people who live in a region on the frontline of climate change.
Once completed, the Great Green Wall will be the largest living structure on Earth and a new Wonder of the World.


IMPROVING MILLIONS OF LIVES
The Great Green Wall is taking root in the Sahel region, at the southern edge of the Sahara desert – one of the poorest places on the planet.
More than anywhere else on Earth, the Sahel is on the frontline of climate change and millions of locals are already facing its devastating impact. Persistent droughts, lack of food, conflicts over fewer natural resources, and mass migration to Europe are some of the many consequences.
Yet, local people from Senegal in the West to Djibouti in the East are fighting back. Since the birth of the initiative in 2007, life has started coming back to the land, bringing greater food security, jobs and stability to people’s lives.
A GLOBAL SYMBOL
The Great Green Wall isn’t just for the Sahel. It is global symbol for humanity overcoming its biggest threat – our changing environment.
It shows that if we can work with nature, even in challenging places like in the Sahel, we can overcome adversity, and build a better world for generations to come.
GROWING MORE THAN TREES
More than growing trees and plants, the Great Green Wall is transforming the lives of millions of people in the Sahel region.

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A Call to Peace

The first observance of the World Day of Peace was on January 1, 1968. In his address for that first observance, Paul VI established the day as a mandate for the Church to recognize its social mission and call faithful men and women to their duty to work for integral human development.

Every pope since — St. John Paul II, Benedict XVI, and Francis — has issued a new World Day of Peace message annually. And these messages have included major ideas and teaching from these popes. In 1972, Paul VI coined his famous axiom, “If you want peace, work for justice”; John Paul II turned attention to the environment in 1990, a time when environmental ethics was not nearly as prominent of a topic as today; and in 2006 Benedict XVI offered a nuanced theological preview of his 2009 encyclical Caritas in Veritate in a message entitled “In Truth, Peace.” And now, Pope Francis continues this legacy, and has even augmented it.

mother earth 1Pope Francis has defined his pontificate with his urging of the Church to go to the margins of society, he has been in many ways a pope of peace and justice. In his pastoral visit recently  in Chile reminded the people to work for it. “Do you want peace? Then work for peace. A peacemaker knows that it is not enough simply to say: ‘I am not hurting anybody.’ As St. Alberto Hurtado used to say, ‘It is very good not to do wrong, but very bad not to do good.’” Pope Francis said that peace and justice will not come to those who are compliant.

Our Constitutions  remind us that as Servites:  our ideal is to reach the perfect stature of Christ, we shall have only relationships of peace, mercy, justice and constructive love toward creatures. (Cost 299). In our community gatherings, parish meetings and apostolic ministries I encourage every member of the Servite family to use these four strategies by which you can integrate peace building  in one’s daily life:

1. Learn. Read the World Day of Peace message. There are numerous websites to learn about Catholic efforts for peace and justice. Visit the  website, scan their news updates, and read about their work..
2. Inform. Start a conversation about the World Day of Peace message on social media about creating a better world.
3. Act. Visit the Catholic website on Peace  and read their toolkit for action. Affiliate with Peace organizations and movements.
4. Pray. Join Pope Francis in praying for peace. Pope Francis has launched a special Day of Prayer and Fasting for Peace on February 23, 2018 for war-torn nations, in particular for the Democratic Republic of Congo and for South Sudan that are suffering protracted conflict, and he has invited all men and women, regardless of their religious denomination, to join.

 

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Migrants and Refugees: interesting facts from then and now

 

Did you know that….

Every year, a Pontifical Message is published on the occasion of the World Day of Migrants and Refugees, an event that originates from the circular letter “Pain and Concerns”, which the Sacred Congregation sent on December 6, 1914 to the Italian Diocesan Ordinaries. It is in this letter  recalls for the first time it was asked to set up an annual day to raise awareness on the phenomenon of migration and also to promote a collection in favor of pastoral work for Italian emigrants and for the preparation of emigration missionaries. As a consequence of that letter, on 21st February 1915 the first celebration of this Day took place.

mnd20180112-2

Migrants and refugees challenge us. Every day the dramatic situation of many men and women, forced to abandon their land continues to question us. We must not forget, for example, the current tragedies of the sea that have migrants as victims. According to the dramatic calculation reported by the International Organization for Migration, there are more than 3,000 migrants and refugees who lost their lives in 2017 in an attempt to cross the Mediterranean from the beginning of 2017. From the tragedy of Lampedusa in October 2013 – a shipwreck which cost the lives of 360 people – migrants dead in the Mediterranean were over 15,00

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MESSAGE OF HIS HOLINESS POPE FRANCIS FOR THE 104th WORLD DAY OF MIGRANTS AND REFUGEES 2018 [14 January 2018]

“Welcoming, protecting, promoting and
integrating migrants and refugees”

 

pOPE WITH mIGRANTS

Dear brothers and sisters!

“You shall treat the stranger who sojourns with you as the native among you, and you shall love him as yourself, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the Lord your God” (Leviticus 19:34).

Throughout the first years of my pontificate, I have repeatedly expressed my particular concern for the lamentable situation of many migrants and refugees fleeing from war, persecution, natural disasters and poverty.  This situation is undoubtedly a “sign of the times” which I have tried to interpret, with the help of the Holy Spirit, ever since my visit to Lampedusa on 8 July 2013.  When I instituted the new Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development, I wanted a particular section – under my personal direction for the time being – to express the Church’s concern for migrants, displaced people, refugees and victims of human trafficking.

Every stranger who knocks at our door is an opportunity for an encounter with Jesus Christ, who identifies with the welcomed and rejected strangers of every age (Matthew 25:35-43).  The Lord entrusts to the Church’s motherly love every person forced to leave their homeland in search of a better future.[1]  This solidarity must be concretely expressed at every stage of the migratory experience – from departure through journey to arrival and return.  This is a great responsibility, which the Church intends to share with all believers and men and women of good will, who are called to respond to the many challenges of contemporary migration with generosity, promptness, wisdom and foresight, each according to their own abilities.

In this regard, I wish to reaffirm that “our shared response may be articulated by four verbs: to welcome, to protect, to promote and to integrate”.[2]

Considering the current situation, welcoming means, above all, offering broader options for migrants and refugees to enter destination countries safely and legally.  This calls for a concrete commitment to increase and simplify the process for granting humanitarian visas and for reunifying families.  At the same time, I hope that a greater number of countries will adopt private and community sponsorship programmes, and open humanitarian corridors for particularly vulnerable refugees.  Furthermore, special temporary visas should be granted to people fleeing conflicts in neighbouring countries.  Collective and arbitrary expulsions of migrants and refugees are not suitable solutions, particularly where people are returned to countries which cannot guarantee respect for human dignity and fundamental rights.[3]  Once again, I want to emphasise the importance of offering migrants and refugees adequate and dignified initial accommodation.  “More widespread programmes of welcome, already initiated in different places, seem to favour a personal encounter and allow for greater quality of service and increased guarantees of success”.[4]  The principle of the centrality of the human person, firmly stated by my beloved Predecessor, Benedict XVI,[5] obliges us to always prioritise personal safety over national security.  It is necessary, therefore, to ensure that agents in charge of border control areproperly trained.  The situation of migrants, asylum seekers and refugees requires that they be guaranteed personal safety and access to basic services.  For the sake of the fundamental dignity of every human person, we must strive to find alternative solutions to detention for those who enter a country without authorisation.[6]

The second verb – protecting – may be understood as a series of steps intended to defend the rights and dignity of migrants and refugees, independent of their legal status.[7]  Such protection begins in the country of origin, and consists in offering reliable and verified information before departure, and in providing safety from illegal recruitment practices.[8]  This must be ongoing, as far as possible, in the country of migration, guaranteeing them adequate consular assistance, the right to personally retain their identity documents at all times, fair access to justice, the possibility of opening a personal bank account, and a minimum sufficient to live on.  When duly recognised and valued, the potential and skills of migrants, asylum seekers and refugees are a true resource for the communities that welcome them.[9]  This is why I hope that, in countries of arrival, migrants may be offered freedom of movement, work opportunities, and access to means of communication, out of respect for their dignity.  For those who decide to return to their homeland, I want to emphasise the need to develop social and professional reintegration programmes.  The International Convention on the Rights of the Child provides a universal legal basis for the protection of underage migrants.  They must be spared any form of detention related to migratory status, and must be guaranteed regular access to primary and secondary education.  Equally, when they come of age they must be guaranteed the right to remain and to enjoy the possibility of continuing their studies.  Temporary custody or foster programmes should be provided for unaccompanied minors and minors separated from their families.[10]  The universal right to a nationality should be recognised and duly certified for all children at birth.  The statelessness which migrants and refugees sometimes fall into can easily be avoided with the adoption of “nationality legislation that is in conformity with the fundamental principles of international law”.[11]  Migratory status should not limit access to national healthcare and pension plans, nor affect the transfer of their contributions if repatriated.

Promoting essentially means a determined effort to ensure that all migrants and refugees – as well as the communities which welcome them – are empowered to achieve their potential as human beings, in all the dimensions which constitute the humanity intended by the Creator.[12]  Among these, we must recognize the true value of the religious dimension, ensuring to all foreigners in any country the freedom of religious belief and practice.   Many migrants and refugees have abilities which must be appropriately recognised and valued.  Since “work, by its nature, is meant to unite peoples”,[13] I encourage a determined effort to promote the social and professional inclusion of migrants and refugees, guaranteeing for all – including those seeking asylum – the possibility of employment, language instruction and active citizenship, together with sufficient information provided in their mother tongue.  In the case of underage migrants, their involvement in labour must be regulated to prevent exploitation and risks to their normal growth and development.  In 2006, Benedict XVI highlighted how, in the context of migration, the family is “a place and resource of the culture of life and a factor for the integration of values”.[14]  The family’s integrity must always be promoted, supporting family reunifications – including grandparents, grandchildren and siblings – independent of financial requirements.  Migrants, asylum seekers and refugees with disabilities must be granted greater assistance and support.  While I recognize the praiseworthy efforts, thus far, of many countries, in terms of international cooperation and humanitarian aid, I hope that the offering of this assistance will take into account the needs (such as medical and social assistance, as well as education) of developing countries which receive a significant influx of migrants and refugees.  I also hope that local communities which are vulnerable and facing material hardship, will be included among aid beneficiaries.[15]

The final verb – integrating – concerns the opportunities for intercultural enrichment brought about by the presence of migrants and refugees.  Integration is not “an assimilation that leads migrants to suppress or to forget their own cultural identity. Rather, contact with others leads to discovering their ‘secret’, to being open to them in order to welcome their valid aspects and thus contribute to knowing each one better.  This is a lengthy process that aims to shape societies and cultures, making them more and more a reflection of the multi-faceted gifts of God to human beings”.[16]  This process can be accelerated by granting citizenship free offinancial or linguistic requirements, and by offering the possibility of special legalisation to migrants who can claim a long period of residence in the country of arrival.  I reiterate the need to foster a culture of encounter in every way possible – by increasingopportunities for intercultural exchange, documenting and disseminating best practices of integration, and developing programmes to prepare local communities for integration processes.   I wish to stress the special case of people forced to abandon their country of arrival due to a humanitarian crisis.  These people must be ensured adequate assistance for repatriation and effective reintegration programmes in their home countries.

In line with her pastoral tradition, the Church is ready to commit herself to realising all the initiatives proposed above.  Yet in order to achieve the desired outcome, the contribution of political communities and civil societies is indispensable, each according to their own responsibilities.

At the United Nations Summit held in New York on 19 September 2016, world leaders clearly expressed their desire to take decisive action in support of migrants and refugees to save their lives and protect their rights, sharing this responsibility on a global level.  To this end, the states committed themselves to drafting and approving, before the end of 2018, two Global Compacts, one for refugees and the other for migrants.

Dear brothers and sisters, in light of these processes currently underway, the coming months offer a unique opportunity to advocate and support the concrete actions which I have described with four verbs.  I invite you, therefore, to use every occasion to share this message with all political and social actors involved (or who seek to be involved) in the process which will lead to the approval of the two Global Compacts.

Today, 15 August, we celebrate the Feast of the Assumption of Mary.  The Holy Mother of God herself experienced the hardship of exile (Matthew 2:13-15), lovingly accompanied her Son’s journey to Calvary, and now shares eternally his glory.  To her maternal intercession we entrust the hopes of all the world’s migrants and refugees and the aspirations of the communities which welcome them, so that, responding to the Lord’s supreme commandment, we may all learn to love the other, the stranger, as ourselves.

Vatican City, 15 August 2017

Solemnity of the Assumption of the B.V. Mary
FRANCIS

[1] Cf. Pius XII, Apostolic Constitution Exsul Familia, Titulus Primus, I.
[2]  Address to Participants in the International Forum on “Migration and Peace”, 21 February 2017.
[3] Cf. Statement of the Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the 103rd Session of the Council of the IOM, 26 November 2013.
[4]  Address to Participants in the International Forum on “Migration and Peace”, 21 February 2017.
[5] Cf. Benedict XVI, Encyclical Letter Caritas in Veritate, 47.
[6] Cf.   Statement of the Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the 20th Session of the UN Human Rights Council, 22 June 2012.
[7] Cf. Benedict XVI, Encyclical Letter Caritas in Veritate, 62.
[8] Cf. Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People, Instruction Erga Migrantes Caritas Christi, 6.
[9] Cf. Benedict XVI, Address to the Participants in the 6th World Congress for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People, 9 November 2009.
[10] Cf. Benedict XVI, Message for the World Day of Migrants and Refugees (2010) and Statement of the Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the 26th Ordinary Session of the Human Rights Council on the Human Rights of Migrants, 13 June 2014.
[11] Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People and Pontifical Council Cor Unum, Welcoming Christ in Refugees and Forcibly Displaced Persons, 2013, 70.
[12] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 14.
[13] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 27.
[14] Benedict XVI, Message for the World Day of Migrants and Refugees (2007).
[15] Cf. Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People and Pontifical Council Cor Unum, Welcoming Christ in Refugees and Forcibly Displaced Persons, 2013, 30-31.
[16] John Paul II, Message for the World Day of Migrants and Refugees (2005).

 

 
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Geoengineering (Climate Engineering)- a solution for climate change?

(S. Vincent Anesthasiar,CMF)

Secretariat for JPIC , E mail: jpiccmf@cmfgen.org

Curia Generalizia, 00197 Roma.

 

geoengineering

 

The invention of steam engine by James Watt in 1784 accelerated the use of gas, oil and coal(fossil fuel). The burning of fuel causes emission of carbon dioxide(CO2) . The CO2 increases the global temperature. At the era of industrial revolution( 1784-1800) the temperature of the planet was 0.8 °C lesser than the present temperature. For example the temperature of Chennai( India) was 28 °C then and whereas now it is 29.5°C.

 

The Paris Climate agreement (came into force in November 2016) aims to limit the global temperature rise between 1.5 to 2 degrees Celsius above the preindustrial levels. To achieve this the CO2 emission has to be reduced. To control the temperature, the allowed carbon budget till the year 2100 is 2860 Giga Tonnes (Gt). But now the annual global CO2 emission is 40 Gt. At this rate, the global carbon in 2100 will be 3320 Gt. This is a very alarming stage.

After the Paris agreement the nations have not taken any initiative to reduce the CO2 emission; the worst is that the US has withdrawn its support for Paris Agreement on June 1, 2017. At this stage to address this climate problem the scientists have come out with Geoengineering/Climate engineering, to fix mechanically, the climate issue.

 

Geoengineering(Climate Engineering)?:

The volcanic eruptions, pump the soot and Sulphur dioxide into the upper atmosphere. These prevent the sun rays coming to the earth. So the earth becomes cool. So volcanic eruptions are natural efforts of the earth to save itself. The scientists say that the humans can play the volcano; the aerosol particles and sulphur dioxide can be injected into the atmosphere mechanically to prevent the sun rays reaching the earth. This method is called Solar Radiation

 

Management(SRM).

The nose filters the carbon in the air that is breathed. Similarly, study is also underway, to filter the  carbon which is in the air and to store them in the ground. Ocean fertilization is another method to remove the existing atmospheric carbon. In this method nutrients are spread in certain parts of ocean to increase the algal growth. In turn the algal will intake the CO2. When algal die and reach the sea bottom, the carbon in the algal gets deposited in the sea bed. To reduce the carbon going into the atmosphere, experimentation is on to capture the carbon from the emitted smoke, before it goes into atmosphere. Another method under study is to burn the firewood(biomass) in low oxygen condition. So that the biomass becomes charcoal which can be powdered and mixed with soil.

 

Critique of Geoengineering:

There are diverse opinions, on the utility of geoengineering to tackle the climate question. It is said that the SRM method is very expensive; it might require 100 billion euros yearly. Once these methods are employed they  cannot be stopped; stopping would adversely raise the temperature. Because of these manipulations, the oceans will become more acidic, and the skies will become subtly darker; rainfall patterns could be affected; the ozone layer can be affected; the use of these techniques is like using umbrella; umbrella does not cancel the rain, it only makes the water fall away from the head; similarly the solar rays prevented in one part of the globe affects the other parts, causing drought etc. The rich nations and people can use the geoengineering to threaten and sanction other nations. Like economic sanctions there can be climate sanctions in the future.

 

Climate Geoengineering cannot provide a “quick fix” for the climate change problem. One cannot eat the cake and keep it; so also without changing the consumeristic pattern of life we ca not keep the planet healthy. The atmosphere is common for all and for all the generations to come. How can this generation decide for the generations to come? Even to conduct the research on geoengineering methods and to use them, global consent is needed. So questions are raised on ‘ who can make the decisions related to the research and the use? When these methods used, who will take care of the people affected by these methods? So there are moral, spiritual, economic, environmental and governance questions related to geoengineering. So a broad dialogue is needed, involving the participation of scientists, religious persons, economists, political scientists, environmentalists and philosophers. We are not sure whether there was a chance for public to debate when Genetic engineering was under study. But now Genetic modification(GM) on species and plants/food have made the life forms chemical dependent; GM has spoiled the health of the body, food crops, water, fishery, sea, soil and atmosphere. So now we have to initiate public discussion on geoengineering. The scientists welcome the public views. So we can take this to people and give feed back to scientific community.

 

 

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